Giorgio de Chirico
Giorgio de Chirico (1888–1978) is an Italian artist and art theorist, the main representative of "metaphysical painting", later recognized as the forerunner of surrealism.
Giorgio de Chirico was born in the Greek city of Volos in 1888. He was educated at the Higher School of Art in Athens and at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich. The fascination with the theory of the mysterious in the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche, Arthur Schopenhauer's ideas about intuitive knowledge and the allegorical painting of Arnold Böcklin contributed to Giorgio de Chirico's interest in interpreting mysterious characters, dreams and hallucinations. De Chirico became famous thanks to a series of views of deserted city squares with architectural or antique decorations, a combination of unrelated objects and a disturbing, unreal atmosphere. “In order to become truly immortal, a work of art must go beyond the limits of the human, where there is no common sense and logic,” wrote de Chirico back in 1913.
The search for the supernatural in the ordinary became a topic that later excited the surrealists - Max Ernst, Salvador Dali and others, who unanimously recognized de Chirico as the predecessor of this trend.